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2Physics Quote:
"Perfect transparency has never been realized in natural transparent solid materials such as glass because of the impedance mismatch with free space or air. As a consequence, there generally exist unwanted reflected waves at the surface of a glass slab. It is well known that non-reflection only occurs at a particular incident angle for a specific polarization, which is known as the Brewster angle effect. Our question is: is it possible to extend the Brewster angle from a particular angle to a wide range of or all angles, so that there is no reflection for any incident angle."
-- Jie Luo, Yuting Yang, Zhongqi Yao, Weixin Lu, Bo Hou, Zhi Hong Hang, Che Ting Chan, Yun Lai

(Read Full Article: "Ultratransparent Media: Towards the Ultimate Transparency"
)

Monday, May 08, 2006

Hydrogen in Far Galaxy

A team of astronomers from European Southern Observatory (ESO) detected the presence of molecular hydrogen in the farthest system ever, an otherwise invisible galaxy that we observe when the Universe was less than 1.5 billion years old (The universe is estimated to be about 15 billion years old). The astronomers find that there is about one hydrogen molecule for 250 hydrogen atoms. This also implies that the gas in this galaxy must be rather cold, about -90 to -180 degrees Celsius. In addition, several lines from 'metals' are also seen, allowing the researchers to deduce the amount of various chemical elements.

The team arrived at this conclusion analyzing light from a quasar located 12.3 billion light-years away. A similar set of observations for two other quasars, together with the most precise laboratory measurements, allows scientists to infer that the ratio of the proton to electron masses may have changed with time (our last posting).

These exciting results will be available in a paper accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal Letters ("Molecular Hydrogen in a Damped Lyman-α system at zabs=4.224", by C. Ledoux, P. Petitjean, and R. Srianand).

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