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2Physics Quote:
"Eckhard D. Falkenberg, who found evidence of an annual oscillation in the beta-decay rate of tritium, was either the first or one of the first to propose that some beta-decay rates may be variable. He suggested that the beta-decay process may be influenced by neutrinos, and attributed the annual variation to the varying Earth-Sun distance that leads to a corresponding variation in the flux of solar neutrinos as detected on Earth. Supporting evidence for the variability of beta-decay rates could be found in the results of an experiment carried out at the Brookhaven National Laboratory."
-- Peter A. Sturrock, Ephraim Fischbach, Jeffrey D. Scargle

(Read Full Article: "Indications of an Influence of Solar Neutrinos on Beta Decays"

Saturday, April 04, 2009

Bose Gas in 2D Flatland and Mysteries of Superfluidity

Kristian Helmerson [photo courtesy: Joint Quantum Institute, University of Maryland]

In a paper accepted for publication in Physical Review Letters, a team of physicists led by Kristian Helmerson of Joint Quantum Institute [JQI, a partnership of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Maryland] presents some exciting aspects of physics happening in a 2D Flatland.

If physicists lived in Flatland—the fictional two-dimensional world invented by Edwin Abbott in his 1884 novel —some of their quantum physics experiments would turn out differently (not just thinner) than those in our world. The distinction has taken another step from speculative fiction to real-world puzzle with this paper reporting on a Flatland arrangement of ultracold gas atoms [1]. The new results, which don’t quite jibe with earlier Flatland experiments in Paris [2,3], might help clarify a strange property: “superfluidity.”

In three dimensions, cooling a gas of certain atoms to sufficiently low temperatures turns them into a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). As predicted in the 1920s (and first demonstrated in 1995) the once individualistic gas atoms begin to move as a single, coordinated entity. But back in 1970, theorists predicted that something different would happen in two dimensions: an ultracold gas of interacting atoms would undergo the analogous “Berezinskii, Kosterlitz and Thouless” (BKT) transition, in which atoms don’t quite move in lockstep as they do in a BEC, but mysteriously share some of a BEC’s properties, such as superfluidity, or frictionless flow.

In these new experiments, the team at JQI has achieved the latest experimental observation of the BKT transition. The JQI researchers trap and cool a micron-thick layer of sodium atoms, confined to move in only two dimensions. At higher temperatures, the atoms have normal “thermal” behavior in which they act as individual entities, but then as the temperature lowers, the gas transforms into a “quasi-condensate,” consisting of little islands each behaving like a tiny BEC.

[Image credit: Kristian Helmerson, JQI] A gas of atoms arranged in a single, flat layer ordinarily has ‘thermal’ behavior (left) in which the atoms act as individual entities. At lowered temperatures, the gas transforms into a ‘quasi-condensate‘ (middle) consisting of little islands (schematically represented as colored blobs) that fluctuate in time; within each island atoms act as a single coordinated entity. At lower temperatures still, the gas enters the superfluid ‘BKT’ phase (right): the islands start to coalesce and atoms can flow frictionlessly within the merged area.

By further lowering the temperature, the gas makes the transition to a BKT superfluid where the islands begin to merge into a sort of “United States” of superfluidity. In this situation, an atom can flow unimpeded between neighboring “states” since the borders of the former islands are not well defined, but one can tell that the atom is “not in Kansas anymore,” in contrast to a BEC where one cannot pinpoint the location of a particular atom anywhere in the gas.

When a group from Ecole Normale Supérieure (Paris) lowered the temperature of their 2-D gas in earlier experiments [2,3], they only saw a sharp transition from thermal behavior to a BKT superfluid, rather than the additional step of the non-superfluid quasi-condensate. But the Paris group used rubidium atoms, which are heavier and more strongly interacting, possibly exhibiting a qualitatively different behavior. These new results may cast light on superfluidity, which decades after its discovery still seems to hold new mysteries.

[1] "Observation of a 2D Bose-gas: From thermal to quasi-condensate to superfluid",
P. Cladé, C. Ryu, A. Ramanathan, K. Helmerson and W.D. Phillips, Physical Review Letters, accepted for publication [link will be added after it's published].
[2] "Berezinskii–Kosterlitz–Thouless crossover in a trapped atomic gas", Zoran Hadzibabic, Peter Krüger, Marc Cheneau, Baptiste Battelier and Jean Dalibard, Nature 441, 1118 (2006).
[3] "Critical Point of an Interacting Two-Dimensional Atomic Bose Gas",
Peter Krüger, Zoran Hadzibabic, and Jean Dalibard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 040402 (2007).

[We thank National Institute of Standards and Technology for materials used in this posting]



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