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2Physics Quote:
"Can photons in vacuum interact? The answer is not, since the vacuum is a linear medium where electromagnetic excitations and waves simply sum up, crossing themselves with no interaction. There exist a plenty of nonlinear media where the propagation features depend on the concentration of the waves or particles themselves. For example travelling photons in a nonlinear optical medium modify their structures during the propagation, attracting or repelling each other depending on the focusing or defocusing properties of the medium, and giving rise to self-sustained preserving profiles such as space and time solitons or rapidly rising fronts such as shock waves." -- Lorenzo Dominici, Mikhail Petrov, Michal Matuszewski, Dario Ballarini, Milena De Giorgi, David Colas, Emiliano Cancellieri, Blanca Silva Fernández, Alberto Bramati, Giuseppe Gigli, Alexei Kavokin, Fabrice Laussy, Daniele Sanvitto. (Read Full Article: "The Real-Space Collapse of a Two Dimensional Polariton Gas" )

Saturday, April 04, 2009

Bose Gas in 2D Flatland and Mysteries of Superfluidity

Kristian Helmerson [photo courtesy: Joint Quantum Institute, University of Maryland]

In a paper accepted for publication in Physical Review Letters, a team of physicists led by Kristian Helmerson of Joint Quantum Institute [JQI, a partnership of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Maryland] presents some exciting aspects of physics happening in a 2D Flatland.

If physicists lived in Flatland—the fictional two-dimensional world invented by Edwin Abbott in his 1884 novel —some of their quantum physics experiments would turn out differently (not just thinner) than those in our world. The distinction has taken another step from speculative fiction to real-world puzzle with this paper reporting on a Flatland arrangement of ultracold gas atoms [1]. The new results, which don’t quite jibe with earlier Flatland experiments in Paris [2,3], might help clarify a strange property: “superfluidity.”

In three dimensions, cooling a gas of certain atoms to sufficiently low temperatures turns them into a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). As predicted in the 1920s (and first demonstrated in 1995) the once individualistic gas atoms begin to move as a single, coordinated entity. But back in 1970, theorists predicted that something different would happen in two dimensions: an ultracold gas of interacting atoms would undergo the analogous “Berezinskii, Kosterlitz and Thouless” (BKT) transition, in which atoms don’t quite move in lockstep as they do in a BEC, but mysteriously share some of a BEC’s properties, such as superfluidity, or frictionless flow.

In these new experiments, the team at JQI has achieved the latest experimental observation of the BKT transition. The JQI researchers trap and cool a micron-thick layer of sodium atoms, confined to move in only two dimensions. At higher temperatures, the atoms have normal “thermal” behavior in which they act as individual entities, but then as the temperature lowers, the gas transforms into a “quasi-condensate,” consisting of little islands each behaving like a tiny BEC.

[Image credit: Kristian Helmerson, JQI] A gas of atoms arranged in a single, flat layer ordinarily has ‘thermal’ behavior (left) in which the atoms act as individual entities. At lowered temperatures, the gas transforms into a ‘quasi-condensate‘ (middle) consisting of little islands (schematically represented as colored blobs) that fluctuate in time; within each island atoms act as a single coordinated entity. At lower temperatures still, the gas enters the superfluid ‘BKT’ phase (right): the islands start to coalesce and atoms can flow frictionlessly within the merged area.

By further lowering the temperature, the gas makes the transition to a BKT superfluid where the islands begin to merge into a sort of “United States” of superfluidity. In this situation, an atom can flow unimpeded between neighboring “states” since the borders of the former islands are not well defined, but one can tell that the atom is “not in Kansas anymore,” in contrast to a BEC where one cannot pinpoint the location of a particular atom anywhere in the gas.

When a group from Ecole Normale Supérieure (Paris) lowered the temperature of their 2-D gas in earlier experiments [2,3], they only saw a sharp transition from thermal behavior to a BKT superfluid, rather than the additional step of the non-superfluid quasi-condensate. But the Paris group used rubidium atoms, which are heavier and more strongly interacting, possibly exhibiting a qualitatively different behavior. These new results may cast light on superfluidity, which decades after its discovery still seems to hold new mysteries.

References
[1] "Observation of a 2D Bose-gas: From thermal to quasi-condensate to superfluid",
P. Cladé, C. Ryu, A. Ramanathan, K. Helmerson and W.D. Phillips, Physical Review Letters, accepted for publication [link will be added after it's published].
arXiv:0805.3519.
[2] "Berezinskii–Kosterlitz–Thouless crossover in a trapped atomic gas", Zoran Hadzibabic, Peter Krüger, Marc Cheneau, Baptiste Battelier and Jean Dalibard, Nature 441, 1118 (2006).
Abstract.
[3] "Critical Point of an Interacting Two-Dimensional Atomic Bose Gas",
Peter Krüger, Zoran Hadzibabic, and Jean Dalibard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 040402 (2007).
Abstract.

[We thank National Institute of Standards and Technology for materials used in this posting]

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