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2Physics Quote:
"Can photons in vacuum interact? The answer is not, since the vacuum is a linear medium where electromagnetic excitations and waves simply sum up, crossing themselves with no interaction. There exist a plenty of nonlinear media where the propagation features depend on the concentration of the waves or particles themselves. For example travelling photons in a nonlinear optical medium modify their structures during the propagation, attracting or repelling each other depending on the focusing or defocusing properties of the medium, and giving rise to self-sustained preserving profiles such as space and time solitons or rapidly rising fronts such as shock waves." -- Lorenzo Dominici, Mikhail Petrov, Michal Matuszewski, Dario Ballarini, Milena De Giorgi, David Colas, Emiliano Cancellieri, Blanca Silva Fernández, Alberto Bramati, Giuseppe Gigli, Alexei Kavokin, Fabrice Laussy, Daniele Sanvitto. (Read Full Article: "The Real-Space Collapse of a Two Dimensional Polariton Gas" )

Sunday, July 20, 2014

Few-layer Black Phosphorus Phototransistors for Fast and Broadband Photodetection

From Left to Right: (Top) Michele Buscema, Dirk J. Groenendijk, Sofya I. Blanter, (Bottom) Gary A. Steele, Herre S.J. van der Zant and Andres Castellanos-Gomez

Michele Buscema, Dirk J. Groenendijk, Sofya I. Blanter, Gary A. Steele, Herre S.J. van der Zant, Andres Castellanos-Gomez.

Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.


The isolation of graphene has opened the door for the studying of the large family of layered two-dimensional (2D) materials, driven by the extraordinary properties that these materials show in their single and few-layer form [1-4]. Graphene, a one-atom thick layer of carbon atoms, has shown excellent electrical properties (e.g. mobility in the order of 170 000 cm2/Vs at room temperature) and large breaking strength [5,6]. However, its applicability in low-power field effect transistors (FETs) and optoelectronic devices (e.g. photodetectors) is hampered by its zero bandgap.

This absence of a bandgap has intensified the current research in other 2D materials with an intrinsic bandgap [7]. For instance, silicene, a single layer of silicon atoms, represents a semiconducting analogue to graphene but so far it has only been realized in an ultra-high-vacuum environment, a severe limitation for further studies and applications [8]. Other promising candidates for optoelectronic applications are the members of the transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) material class [9-13]. The large and direct bandgap of their single-layer form provides strong light absorption – a necessary condition for large photoresponse – but operation is limited to part of the visible spectrum. A material with a direct and small bandgap is needed to extend the detection range accessible with 2D materials.

Black phosphorus

Few-layer black phosphorus is a new member of the 2D-materials family. Black phosphorus is a layered allotrope of the element phosphorus and, in bulk, it is a semiconductor with a direct bandgap of 0.35 eV [14]. In its few-layer form, the bandgap is predicted to strongly depend on the number of layers, from 0.35 eV (bulk) to 2.0 eV (single-layer). Moreover, FETs based on few-layer black-phosphorus show promising electrical properties [15-18], making them an appealing candidate for tunable photodetection from the visible to the infrared part of the spectrum.

Main Results

In our recently published work [19], we characterized the response to light excitation of FETs based on few-layer black phosphorus (thickness ranging from 3nm to 8nm). Figure 1a shows a schematic of the device and of the measurement circuit. Without illumination, the black-phosphorus FETs show ambipolar behavior, as both holes and electrons can be induced in the conducting channel by the gate electric field. The measured mobilities are in the order of 100 cm2/Vs and current on/off ratio in the order of 103, demonstrating good electrical behavior. Under illumination, we measure a sizable photoresponse to excitation wavelengths from the visible up to 940 nm (see Figure 1b). Figure 1c shows the photocurrent measured for a single pulse of light excitation from which we estimate a rise time of 1 ms, demonstrating broadband and fast photodetection. For comparison, photodetectors based on single-layer molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) can reach higher responsivities (~ 880 X 103 mA/W) but their response time is limited to 0.6 sec [20].
Figure 1: (a) Device schematics (b) Source-drain current vs. gate voltage in dark (black solid line), with λ = 940 nm illumination (purple solid line), λ = 640 nm illumination (red solid line) and λ = 532 nm illumination (green solid line). The total incident optical power is 750 μW for all wavelengths. (c) Source-drain current vs. time for a single period of light modulation with a mechanical chopper (different device from panel b).

Future trends and outlook

Taking advantage of the ambipolarity, one could think of electrostatically defining a PN junction in a few-layer black phosphorus flake, as already pioneered in single-layer tungsten diselenide (WSe2) [9-11]. A PN junction could be used to boost the photoresponse and generate electrical power via the photovoltaic effect. Given the small and direct bandgap of few-layer black-phosphorus, it would be possible to harvest photons also in the near-infrared part of the spectrum.

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[19] Michele Buscema, Dirk J. Groenendijk, Sofya I. Blanter, Gary A. Steele, Herre S. J. van der Zant, Andres Castellanos-Gomez, "Fast and Broadband Photoresponse of Few-Layer Black Phosphorus Field-Effect Transistors". Nano letters, 14, 3347-3352 (2014). Abstract.
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