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2Physics Quote:
"Eckhard D. Falkenberg, who found evidence of an annual oscillation in the beta-decay rate of tritium, was either the first or one of the first to propose that some beta-decay rates may be variable. He suggested that the beta-decay process may be influenced by neutrinos, and attributed the annual variation to the varying Earth-Sun distance that leads to a corresponding variation in the flux of solar neutrinos as detected on Earth. Supporting evidence for the variability of beta-decay rates could be found in the results of an experiment carried out at the Brookhaven National Laboratory."
-- Peter A. Sturrock, Ephraim Fischbach, Jeffrey D. Scargle

(Read Full Article: "Indications of an Influence of Solar Neutrinos on Beta Decays"

Sunday, August 28, 2016

The Real-Space Collapse of a Two Dimensional Polariton Gas

Photos of some of the authors -- From left to right: (top row) Lorenzo Dominici, Dario Ballarini, Milena De Giorgi; (bottom row) Blanca Silva Fernández, Fabrice Laussy, Daniele Sanvitto.

Lorenzo Dominici1, Mikhail Petrov2, Michal Matuszewski3, Dario Ballarini1, Milena De Giorgi1, David Colas4, Emiliano Cancellieri5,6, Blanca Silva Fernández1,4, Alberto Bramati6, Giuseppe Gigli1,7, Alexei Kavokin2,8,9, Fabrice Laussy4,10, Daniele Sanvitto1.

1CNR NANOTEC—Istituto di Nanotecnologia, Lecce, Italy,
2Spin Optics Laboratory, Saint Petersburg State University, Russia,
3Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland,
4Física Teorica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain,
5Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, UK,
6Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, UPMC-Paris 6, ÉNS et CNRS, France,
7Università del Salento, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio de Giorgi”,  Lecce, Italy,
8CNR-SPIN, Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy,
9Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, UK,
10Russian Quantum Center, Moscow Region, Skolkovo, Russia.

Can photons in vacuum interact?
The answer is not, since the vacuum is a linear medium where electromagnetic excitations and waves simply sum up, crossing themselves with no interaction. There exist a plenty of nonlinear media where the propagation features depend on the concentration of the waves or particles themselves. For example travelling photons in a nonlinear optical medium modify their structures during the propagation, attracting or repelling each other depending on the focusing or defocusing properties of the medium, and giving rise to self-sustained preserving profiles such as space and time solitons [1,2] or rapidly rising fronts such as shock waves [3,4].

One of the highest nonlinear effects can be shown by photonic microcavity (MC) embedding quantum wells (QWs), which are very thin (few tens of atomic distances) planar layers supporting electronic dipolar oscillations (excitons). What happens when a drop of photons, like a laser pulse, is trapped in a MC between two high reflectivity mirrors, and let to interact during this time with the electromagnetic oscillations of the QWs? If the two modes, photons and excitons, are tuned in energy each with the other, they cannot exist independently anymore and the result is the creation of a mixed, hybrid fluid of light and matter, which are known as the polaritons [5].

More specifically, we study the two-dimensional fluids of microcavity exciton polaritons, which can be enumerated among quantum or bosonic gases, and their hydrodynamics effects. Things become pretty nice since these polaritons behave partially as photons, in their light effective masses and fast speeds, and partially as excitons, with strong nonlinear interactions which can be exploited, for example, in all-optical transistors and logic gates [6]. Moreover, some photons continuously leak-out of the microcavity, bringing with them the information on the internal polariton fluid which can be on the one hand more straightforwardly studied with respect, for example, to atomic Bose-Einstein condensates, on the other hand making them out-of-equilibrium bosonic fluids.
Figure 1 (click on the image to view with higher resolution): Snapshots of the polariton fluid density and phase at significant instants. The amplitude and phase maps (the dashed circles depict the initial pump spot FWHM) have been taken at time frames of 0 ps, 2.8 ps and 10.4 ps, which correspond, respectively, to the pulse arrival, the ignition of the dynamical peak and its maximum centre density. The Figure has been extracted from Ref. [7].

In a recent study [7], we point out a very intriguing and unexpected effect, the dynamical concentration of the initial photonic pulse, upon its conversion into a polariton drop of high density. The accumulation of the field in a robust bright peak at the centre, as represented in Figure 1, is indeed surprising because it is at odds with the repulsive interactions of polaritons, which are expected to lead only to the expansion of the polariton cloud. The global phenomenology is spectacular because it is accompanied with the initial Rabi oscillations of the fluid [8,9] on a sub-picosecond scale, the formation of stable ring dark solitons [10,11], and the irradiation of planar ring waves on the external regions. Given the circular symmetry of the system, all these features can be represented in the time-space charts of Figure 2, where a central cross cut of the polariton cloud is represented during time.
Figure 2 (click on the image to view with higher resolution): Time-space charts of the polariton redistribution during time, for both the amplitude (a) and phase (b). The y-axis represents a central cross-cut of the circular-symmetry of the system and the x-axis represents time with a sample stepof 50 fs. Initially the polariton fluid oscillates with a Rabi period of about 800 fs (vertical stripes in the map), while the central density rapidly decays to zero before starting to rise as a bright peak. The two solid lines in both charts mark the phase disturbance delimiting the expanding region with large radial phase-gradient. The Figure has been extracted from Ref. [7].

From an application-oriented perspective we can devise features such as the enhancement ratio of the centre density with respect to the initial one (up to ten times in some experiments), the localization or shrinking factor of the original size (up to ten times as well), and the response speed (few picosecond rise time) and stability time (few tens of picosecond, well beyond the initial pulse length). These features can be tuned continuously with the intensity of the source laser pulse. Figure 3 reports the time dependence of the total population and of the relative centre density in one exemplificative case. The experiments have been reported in Nature Communications [7] and deserve, at least in a divulgative context, its own definition, which effect we like to refer to as the 'polariton backjet'. Indeed, its features are such to intuitively resemble the backjet of a water drop upon a liquid surface, while we devised the physics at the core as a collective polaron effect. This consists in the heating of the semiconductor lattice, resulting in the dynamical redshift of the exciton resonance. It is an interesting case of retarded nonlinearity inversion, leading to the self-sustained localization of the polariton condensate.
Figure 3. Total population and centre density versus time. Blue line are the experimental data of the area-integrated emission intensity, and the black line is a fit based on a model of coupled and damped oscillators. The red curve to be plotted on the right axis is the centre density versus time relative to that at the time of pulse arrival. The real enhancement factor obtained here in the centre density is 1.5, reached in a rise time of t = 10 ps. The Figure has been extracted from Ref. [7] Supplementary information.

The results have been obtained on a very high-quality QW-MC sample (quality factor of 14000) and upon implementing a state-of-the-art real-time digital holography setup. This latter is based on the coherence characteristics of the resonant polariton fluid and the possibility of retrieving its amplitude and phase distribution during ultrafast times upon the interference of the device emission with the laser pulse itself. Indeed this allowed also to prepare other interesting experiments dedicated to peculiar phenomena, such as the Rabi oscillations and their coherent [8] or polarization control [9] and the integer and half-integer quantum vortices [12] which can be excited on the polariton fluid. For most of these cases we could retrieve the complex wavefunction (which is given by an amplitude and phase) of the polariton fluid, with time steps of 0.1 or 0.5 ps and space steps as small as 0.16 micrometers. Fundamentally it is like making a movie on the micrometer scale with a slow-motion ratio, as in the following video:

The fabrication and use of high quality microcavity polariton devices coupled to the most advanced characterization technique is opening a deep insight on fundamental properties of the coupling between light and matter and into exotic phenomena linked to condensation, topological states and many-body coherent and nonlinear fluids. Applications can be expected on the front of new polariton lasers, sub-resolution pixels, optical storage and clocks, data elaboration and multiplexing, sensitive gyroscopes, polarization and angular momentum shaping for optical tweezers and advanced structured femtochemistry.

[1] S. Barland, M. Giudici, G. Tissoni, J. R. Tredicce, M. Brambilla, L. Lugiato, F. Prati, S. Barbay, R. Kuszelewicz, T. Ackemann, W. J. Firth, G.-L. Oppo, "Solitons in semiconductor microcavities", Nature Photonics, 6, 204–204 (2012). Abstract.
[2] Stephane Barland, Jorge R. Tredicce, Massimo Brambilla, Luigi A. Lugiato, Salvador Balle, Massimo Giudici, Tommaso Maggipinto, Lorenzo Spinelli, Giovanna Tissoni, Thomas Knödl, Michael Miller, Roland Jäger, "Cavity solitons as pixels in semiconductor microcavities", Nature, 419, 699–702 (2002)  Abstract.
[3] Wenjie Wan, Shu Jia, Jason W. Fleischer, "Dispersive superfluid-like shock waves in nonlinear optics", Nature Physics, 3, 46–51 (2006). Abstract.
[4] N. Ghofraniha, S. Gentilini, V. Folli, E. DelRe, C. Conti, "Shock waves in disordered media", Physical Review Letters, 109, 243902 (2012). Abstract.
[5] Daniele Sanvitto, Stéphane Kéna-Cohen, "The road towards polaritonic devices", Nature Materials (2016). Abstract.
[6] D. Ballarini, M. De Giorgi, E. Cancellieri, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, R. Cingolani, A. Bramati, G. Gigli, D. Sanvitto, "All-optical polariton transistor", Nature Communications, 4, 1778 (2013). Abstract.
[7] L. Dominici, M. Petrov, M. Matuszewski, D. Ballarini, M. De Giorgi, D. Colas, E. Cancellieri, B. Silva Fernández, A. Bramati, G. Gigli, A. Kavokin, F. Laussy,  D. Sanvitto, "Real-space collapse of a polariton condensate", Nature Communications, 6, 8993 (2015). Abstract.
[8] L. Dominici, D. Colas, S. Donati, J. P. Restrepo Cuartas, M. De Giorgi, D. Ballarini, G. Guirales, J. C. López Carreño, A. Bramati, G. Gigli, E. del Valle, F. P. Laussy, D. Sanvitto, "Ultrafast Control and Rabi Oscillations of Polaritons", Physical Review Letters, 113, 226401 (2014). Abstract.
[9] David Colas, Lorenzo Dominici, Stefano Donati, Anastasiia A Pervishko, Timothy CH Liew, Ivan A Shelykh, Dario Ballarini, Milena de Giorgi, Alberto Bramati, Giuseppe Gigli, Elena del Valle, Fabrice P Laussy, Alexey V Kavokin, Daniele Sanvitto "Polarization shaping of Poincaré beams by polariton oscillations", Light: Science & Applications, 4, e350 (2015). Abstract.
[10] Yuri S. Kivshar, Xiaoping Yang, "Ring dark solitons", Physical Review E, 50, R40–R43 (1994). Abstract.
[11] A S Rodrigues, P G Kevrekidis, R Carretero-González, J Cuevas-Maraver, D J Frantzeskakis, F Palmero, "From nodeless clouds and vortices to gray ring solitons and symmetry-broken states in two-dimensional polariton condensates", Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 26, 155801 (2014). Abstract.
[12] Lorenzo Dominici, Galbadrakh Dagvadorj, Jonathan M. Fellows, Dario Ballarini, Milena De Giorgi, Francesca M. Marchetti, Bruno Piccirillo, Lorenzo Marrucci, Alberto Bramati, Giuseppe Gigli, Marzena H. Szymańska, Daniele Sanvitto, "Vortex and half-vortex dynamics in a nonlinear spinor quantum fluid", Science Advances, 1, e1500807 (2015). Abstract.

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